Foot, Ankle and Lower Leg Conditions
Our highly skilled medical staff at TOSS provides the latest ankle and foot treatment solutions including the use of braces, medicine and if deemed necessary, foot and ankle surgery. At TOSS, we strive to provide a speedy recovery from injuries, diseases, and malformations of the ankle and foot as quickly as possible so that you can return to normal life activities. We accept a wide range of patients and treat acute injuries including fractures, sprains, and tears, as well as, chronic conditions like tendonitis or arthritis.
Sarang Desai, DO
Dr. Desai is the only Orthopedic Surgeon Fellowship Trained in Foot and Ankle surgery practicing in Allen extending north to Oklahoma, and is the only orthopedic surgeon in McKinney focused 100% on foot and ankle injuries and disorders.
Click an image below to see the video that pertains to the condition.
Achilles Tendon Lengthening
This procedure is designed to treat problems with the Achilles tendon, such as chronic tendonitis or a short or contracted Achilles tendon. A series of cuts is created in the tendon to allow it to stretch and lengthen.
Ankle Fracture Surgery
This surgery fixes an unstable break in your ankle. The break could be in the small bone of your lower leg, called the “fibula” or the larger bone, called the “tibia.” Sometimes, they’re both broken. Your surgeon will stabilize your bones so your ankle can heal.
Ankle Fusion, Transfibular
This surgical procedure is performed to treat severe arthritis or injury of the ankle joint. During the procedure, the surgeon removes damaged bone and cartilage and fuses the joint. This stabilizes the ankle and relieves pain.
During this procedure, the surgeon removes diseased or damaged portions of the ankle. The surgeon implants an artificial ankle joint consisting of metal and plastic components. The new joint will help reduce pain and restore mobility to the ankle.
Arthroscopic Articular Cartilage Repair (Ankle)
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed to stimulate the growth of fibrocartilage in an injured joint. Fibrocartilage is a tough, dense, fibrous material that can fill in areas where smooth, glassy cartilage has become damaged or worn away. This procedure may be performed with general or regional anesthesia.
Arthroscopy of the Ankle
This procedure identifies and treats problems in your ankle. With it, the surgeon can access your ankle without creating a large incision.
Bunion Correction with Scarf and Akin Osteotomy
This procedure is used to correct a bunion, a deformity of the joint at the base of the big toe. During this procedure, portions of bone are removed and the bones of the foot and toe are aligned properly, eliminating the bump on the inner side of the foot.
Bunionectomy (Chevron Bunionectomy)
This outpatient procedure is performed to correct a bunion, a deformity of the toe joint. During the procedure, the surgeon may remove excess bone and then shift the toe into proper alignment. This surgery is commonly performed with regional anesthesia.
Bunionette Deformity Correction (Distal Fifth Metatarsal Osteotomy)
This surgical procedure is performed to correct a bunionette, a bony bump on the outer side of the foot at the base of the fifth toe. During this procedure, the surgeon realigns the head of the metatarsal and removes excess bone to eliminate the prominence and give the foot a more natural shape.
Bunionette Deformity Correction (Overview)
A bunionette, also called a tailor’s bunion, is a deformity that forms at the base of the fifth toe. It appears as a large, bony bump beneath the skin, and the toe may turn inward. In its early stages, a bunionette can often be managed with pads and with proper shoes. But if you have a severe bunionette, treatment may involve surgery.
Calcaneal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
This procedure is used to correct a severe fracture of the calcaneus (the heel bone). During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.
Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy (with Lateral Plate Fixation)
This procedure changes the alignment of the calcaneus, commonly called the “heel bone.” The surgeon will cut this bone, adjust its position and stabilize it with an implant. This technique can be used to correct problems such as a flat foot or an abnormally high arch.
Calcaneal Tongue-Type Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
This procedure is used to correct a “tongue-type” fracture of the calcaneus (the heel bone). During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.
Charcot Foot Treatment Options
Charcot foot is a deformity that can result as a complication of diabetes and other conditions. It develops after you lose sensation in your legs and feet. The joints and bones of your foot begin to break down and collapse. You cannot feel these injuries, and you may continue to walk on the foot. This worsens the damage. Charcot foot is a disabling deformity. It can be difficult to treat, but there are techniques that can be used to correct it.
This surgical procedure is used to help relieve symptoms of hallux rigidus by removing bony growths on top of the big toe’s main joint. This procedure improves joint movement and is most successful in patients with less severe arthritis.
Debridement of the Achilles Tendon
This outpatient procedure is designed to repair a damaged Achilles tendon. During the procedure, injured and scarred tissue is removed. This can reduce or eliminate the pain of tendinitis.
Excision of Mortons Neuromas
Morton’s neuroma is an enlarged nerve, compressed or pinched between the bones and the ligament that holds them together. This procedure eases the pain by releasing pressure from the nerve or removing the nerve.
Excision of Soft Tissue Masses
During this outpatient procedure, the physician removes a mass that has formed beneath the skin of the foot. This animation will show the removal of the most common type of soft tissue mass (a ganglion cyst). A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled sac that is connected to a joint capsule or tendon sheath. Ganglion cysts commonly form near the ankle.
First Metatarsal-phalangeal Joint (MTP) Arthrodesis
This surgical procedure is performed to help relieve pain in the front of the foot and correct deformities in the MTP joint of the big toe caused by injury, arthritis or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the bone at the base of the big toe to the first metatarsal bone of the foot.
First MTP Joint Fusion (Locking Plate)
This procedure treats severe arthritis of the joint at the base of the big toe. This is the first metatarsophalangeal joint, commonly called the first “MTP” joint. Arthritis in this joint can cause pain and swelling. It can limit your ability to walk, and it can limit the types of shoes you can wear comfortably. During this procedure, a metal plate is implanted to prevent movement of the MTP joint.
Gastrocnemius Recession (Intramuscular Approach)
This outpatient procedure is used in the correction of conditions such as flatfoot, chronic Achilles tendonitis, or equinus (commonly called toe walking). Gastrocnemius recession lengthens the muscles and tendons at the back of the leg, allowing the heel to shift downward into a more natural position. In many cases, this technique is performed as an alternative to Percutaneous Tendo-Achilles Lengthening, which can permanently weaken the Achilles tendon.
Haglund’s Deformity Surgery (Resection Method)
This treatment removes a bony bump on the back of your heel. That bump is called a “Haglund’s deformity.” It can cause heel pain.
Hammertoe Correction (PIP Joint Arthroplasty)
This surgical procedure is used to correct a hammertoe, a deformity of the toe that causes the toe to become permanently frozen in a bent position. During this procedure, a small piece of bone is removed to shorten the toe and allow it to straighten.
Jones Fracture Fixation (Intramedullary Screw)
This procedure is used to correct a Jones fracture – a fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon inserts a screw into the metatarsal to stabilize the bone and allow it to heal properly.
Jones Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
This procedure is used to correct a Jones fracture – a fracture of the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon inserts one or more screws (and sometimes additional hardware) to stabilize the bone and allow it to heal properly.
During this outpatient procedure, the physician removes a problematic accessory navicular bone. The accessory navicular is an abnormal, unnecessary bone found in a small percentage of people. It is located on the inner side of the foot.
Lapidus Arthrodesis (with Medial Plate Fixation)
This procedure fuses two bones in the foot. These are the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform. This procedure can be used to treat arthritis. It can be used as part of a bunionectomy. It may also be used as part of a procedure to correct a flatfoot.
Lapidus Procedure for Bunion Correction
This procedure is used to correct a bunion, a bony bump at the base of the great toe caused by excess bone growth and misalignment of the bones of the foot and toe. This procedure removes the bump and brings the toe back into proper alignment.
Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction (ALR)
This surgery corrects an unstable ankle. It tightens one or more ligaments that support your ankle. It helps people who’ve had repeated ankle sprains. It can also help people who have certain foot deformities.
Lateral Column Lengthening (Evans Osteotomy) for Adult Acquired Flatfoot
This surgical procedure is used to modify the shape of the foot, creating an arch to correct the condition of pes planus (commonly called flat foot or fallen arch). It can dramatically change the shape of the foot, giving the foot a more normal appearance.
Lisfranc Injury Surgery
This surgery repairs an injury of the Lisfranc joint complex. That’s a cluster of small bones and ligaments in the midfoot. This surgery stabilizes broken or dislocated bones.
Mallet Toe Correction (DIP Joint Arthroplasty)
This surgery corrects a toe that has become permanently bent downward. This technique straightens your toe to allow your foot to function normally.
Medial Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy
This surgical procedure is used to modify the shape of the foot, creating an arch to correct the condition of pes planus (commonly called flat foot or fallen arch).
Metatarsal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
This procedure is used to correct a fracture of one or more of the long bones of the foot. During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bones with hardware to allow the bones to heal properly.
This surgical procedure is performed to help relieve pain in the foot and correct deformities in the midfoot caused by injury, trauma, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses any combination of the navicular, cuboid and cuneiform bones in the midfoot.
Plantar Fascia Release (Open Technique)
This outpatient procedure is a surgical cutting of part of the plantar fascia, a thick band of connective tissue that supports the foot’s arch. By partially cutting this tissue, the surgeon releases tension and allows the tendon to lengthen. This procedure is commonly performed to relieve pain caused by plantar fasciitis.
PRP Therapy (Overview)
Platelet rich plasma therapy can help injured joints and other problems. It uses parts of your own blood to reduce pain and speed up healing.
PRP Therapy for Achilles Tendon Pain
If you have pain in your Achilles tendon, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.
PRP Therapy for Peroneal Tendonitis
If you have painful tendons on the outer side of your ankle, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your ankle feel better and work better.
PRP Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis
If you have pain in your foot from plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma therapy may help. It uses parts of your own blood to help your body heal itself. PRP can help your foot feel better and work better.
Stem Cell Therapy (Overview)
If you have an injury, or if you have tendons or ligaments that have become inflamed, stem cell therapy may help. It uses your body’s own stem cells to help heal damage. It may help you avoid surgery.
This surgical procedure is used to help relieve pain in the joint beneath the ankle joint and correct deformities in the hindfoot caused by injury, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the calcaneus (the heel bone) to the talus, the bone that connects the foot to the ankle.
Surgery for Achilles Tendon Rupture
This surgical procedure is used to repair a ruptured Achilles tendon, the large tendon that travels down the back of the ankle. This procedure will help the tendon heal properly, restoring function to the foot and ankle.
Talar Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
This procedure is used to correct a fracture of the talus, one of the three main bones that form the ankle joint. During this procedure, the surgeon stabilizes the bone with hardware to allow the bone to heal properly.
Tarsal Tunnel Decompression
This surgical procedure relieves pressure on the tibial nerve. This nerve passes through a space called the tarsal tunnel, which is found just behind the bony bump on the inner side of the ankle. The nerve can become compressed in this tunnel.
Tendon Transfer (FHL to Achilles)
This procedure repositions the flexor hallucis longus tendon, (commonly called the “FHL” tendon) to reinforce a diseased Achilles tendon. The FHL tendon travels along the inner side of the ankle and foot. It is responsible for flexing the big toe. Repositioning it adds strength to the Achilles.
Tendon Transfer for Hammertoe (FDL tendon transfer)
This procedure is used to reroute a tendon from beneath a flexible hammertoe to a new path along the top of the toe. Instead of pulling the toe into a bend, the tendon becomes a corrective force that helps straighten the toe.
This surgical procedure is used to help relieve pain in the ankle joint and correct deformities in the hindfoot caused by injury, arthritis, or genetic defect. The procedure fuses the three main joints in the hindfoot that allow side-to-side movement – the calcaneo-cuboid, talonavicular, and subtalar joints.
Weil Osteotomy for Claw Toe
This procedure relieves the symptoms of claw toe, persistent metatarsalgia, metatarsal phalangeal (MTP) joint synovitis or MTP subluxation by shortening the end of the metatarsal at the base of the affected toe. This provides room for the toe to relax and return to its normal position.
Accessory Navicular Problems
An accessory navicular is an extra bone on the inner side of your foot. It’s connected to the bone we call the “navicular,” which helps form the foot’s arch. Most people don’t have an accessory navicular, and you can have one and not know it. But in some people, this extra bone causes problems.
Achilles Tendon Injuries
The Achilles tendons are thick and powerful bands of fibrous tissue. They connect your calf muscles to your heel bones. The tendons help you walk, run and jump. And that means they are under a lot of stress, making injuries to the Achilles tendons common.
Adult Acquired Flatfoot
This is a collapse of your foot’s arch. It happens over time, usually in just one foot but sometimes in both. As your arch collapses, the bones of your foot may gradually shift out of alignment. This can cause pain and other problems.
Ligaments are fibrous, elastic bands of tissue that connect and stabilize the bones. An ankle sprain is a common, painful injury that occurs when one or more of the ankle ligaments is stretched beyond the normal range of motion. Sprains can occur as a result of sudden twisting, turning or rolling movements.
This deformity affects the joint at the base of the big toe. It is a bony bump beneath the skin on the inner side of the foot. A bunion starts small, but over time it can grow to become very large. Bunions are more common in women.
Bunionette Deformity (Tailor’s Bunion)
This bony bump forms on the outer side of the foot at the base of the fifth toe. Like a traditional bunion, a bunionette can be sore and painful. The skin covering the bump can become red and irritated.
Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)
This condition is an abnormally high arch of the foot that results in an excessive amount of body weight being directed to the ball and heel of the foot. Cavus foot can be congenital or acquired, may develop at any age, and can affect one or both feet.
Charcot’s Neuroarthropathy (CN)
This condition, which most often occurs as a complication of long-term diabetes, is a progressive degenerative condition that affects the foot. It is characterized by nerve damage in the foot along with severely weakened foot bones. This combination can result in a person fracturing the foot, but continuing to walk on the broken bones, which leads to debilitating foot deformity.
Chronic Lateral Ankle Pain
This is a pain on the outer side of your ankle. It’s a lasting pain that you may feel all the time. It can make it hard for you to walk and run, and it can increase the possibility of ankle sprains.
This is a common foot deformity. With it, one or more toes buckle and curl into a claw shape. Over time, a claw toe can become locked in this position. It can dig into the sole of your foot. You may have trouble finding comfortable shoes.
Fracture of the Heel Bone (Calcaneus)
This condition is a break in the heel bone, called the calcaneus, which forms the back of the foot. This bone supports the foot and is important for normal walking.
Fracture of the Talus
This condition occurs when the talus, a bone that connects the foot and ankle, develops a fracture from a severe impact or fall. The talus is an important bone of the foot, as it aids in walking on uneven ground and in weight transfer across the ankle joint.
This is a form of arthritis. It causes pain and swelling in your joints. For many people, it starts in the big toe.
Haglund’s Deformity (Retrocalcaneal Bursitis)
This condition is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel that can aggravate the retrocalcaneal bursa, a fluid-filled sac located on the back of the heel between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus. The bursa can become inflamed and swollen, a condition called bursitis. Haglund’s deformity most commonly affects young women.
Hallux Rigidus (Stiff Big Toe)
This is a type of arthritis that affects the base of the big toe. It forms in the metatarsophalangeal joint (we call it the “MTP” joint). With hallux rigidus, the protective cartilage on the ends of these bones wears away. Bone rubs against bone. Bony growths called “bone spurs” may form. Your toe stiffens, and this can make walking uncomfortable.
This condition is a deformity in which a toe bends downward at the middle joint. The second toe is the one most likely to be affected, but this deformity can occur in other toes as well. Sometimes, more than one toe is affected.
High Ankle Sprain (Syndesmosis Ligament Injury)
This condition is a sprain of one or more of the ligaments that hold the tibia and fibula together at the ankle. This joint, called the ankle syndesmosis, is made up of ligaments on the front and rear of the ankle, and in the space between the tibia and fibula.
This is a break of a bone in the foot called the “fifth metatarsal.” It’s on your foot’s outer side, behind the little toe. With a Jones fracture, this bone breaks on the end furthest from the toe. The fifth metatarsal doesn’t have a good blood supply there, so healing can be difficult.
This is an injury of the middle part of the foot, where the metatarsal bones of the forefoot connect to the cuneiform bones of the midfoot. It can involve torn ligaments, broken bones or a combination of both. And, it can involve more than one joint.
The ball of your foot absorbs a lot of stress when you run and jump. It can become injured and sore. We call this pain “metatarsalgia.” The pain can keep you from exercising and from playing sports. And it can be a problem for active people.
This condition is a thickening of the nerve sheath that surrounds a nerve in the ball of the foot. It most commonly develops between the third and fourth toes. It also commonly occurs between the second and third toes.
MTP Synovitis (Capsulitis)
This condition is a sharp or aching pain in the ball of the foot that is most often centered beneath the base of the second toe. This pain is an indication that the bone at the base of the toe, called the proximal phalanx, is beginning to separate from the long bone of the foot, called the metatarsal.
Muscle Strain of the Calf (Gastrocnemius / Soleus Strain)
This common injury is a stretching or tearing of the gastrocnemius or soleus muscles of the lower leg. One or both muscles may be affected.
Navicular Stress Fracture
This condition is an injury to the navicular, one of the tarsal bones of the midfoot. This type of injury is common in athletes, particularly those who participate in high-impact sports that require jumping, sprinting and sudden directional changes. Track and field athletes are particularly susceptible.
Osteochondral Lesion of the Talus
This is an injury of the protective cartilage on the top of the talus (the ankle bone). You’ll find this cartilage where the talus touches the tibia and fibula (the bones of the lower leg). An osteochondral lesion can be a painful problem.
Peroneal Tendon Tears
This condition is a tearing of one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind the lateral malleolus and along the outer side of the ankle.
This condition is an inflammation of one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind the lateral malleolus and along the outer side of the ankle.
This injury is a fracture at the base of the tibia (the largest of the two bones in the lower leg). Pilon fractures involve the weight-bearing surface of the tibia, and typically occur just above the ankle. In many cases, when the tibia is fractured, the thinner bone in the lower leg (called the fibula) is also broken.
Plantar fasciitis is an irritation of the plantar fascia. This thick band of connective tissue travels across the bottom of the foot between the toes and the heel. It supports the foot’s natural arch. It stretches and becomes taut whenever the foot bears weight.
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
This is a problem with a tendon supporting the foot’s arch. We call it the posterior tibial tendon. It connects the calf muscle to the bones on the inner side of the foot. With posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, the tendon becomes inflamed or torn. Your arch becomes unstable, and it may collapse.
This injury involves two small bones under the foot near the big toe. They are called “sesamoid” bones. They aren’t directly connected to other bones of the foot. Instead, the sesamoids are embedded in tendons. With sesamoiditis, these bones and the tendons around them become irritated and inflamed.
Sever’s Disease (Calcaneal Apophysitis)
This isn’t a true disease, it’s a painful heel condition that affects growing children. It’s an inflammation of the growth plate in the heel bone (called the “calcaneus”). Growth plates are places where new bone forms as bones grow and lengthen.
Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
Stress fractures are one or more tiny cracks in a bone. These fractures are common in the legs and feet. That’s because your legs and feet have to support your weight and absorb the forces of walking, running and jumping.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Posterior Tibial Neuralgia)
This condition, also called TTS, affects the tibial nerve in the ankle. This nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. It passes from the leg down to the foot. Just below the bony bump on the inner side of the ankle, it passes through a small space called the tarsal tunnel. TTS is a compression of the nerve within this tunnel.